Montessori: An Education Theory

Moving aims and habits of one generation onto the next is what education is built on, but there isn’t just one way of doing this – there are hundreds of theories. One of these was developed in the late 1800s by a certain Mara Montessori.

The style, which is now found in as many as 20,000 schools across the globe, and is for children up to 18 years old has shown itself to be very worthy. With children working best when they are the ones who set the boundaries, Montessori works well to show freedom, independence and psychological development through many practices.

Here we will take a look at the theory that comes with Montessori education:

– Self construction, spontaneous activity and liberty – An education approach that is based around the human development model, it has two main elements. Through environment interaction, these children manage to be involved in psychological self-construction. In addition, consider how the psychological development path can change and, especially for those under six, the chance for choice in boundaries offers great strides.

– Human tendencies – While the universal and innate characteristics were first seen thanks to studies by Montessori, it was her son who actually coined the phrase. By offering up things like order, repetition, self-perfection,exploration and self-preservation you can drive early development.

– Prepared environment – As previously stated, this theory is pretty much worked around the premise of having limits but offering choices within them. Thanks to a use of construction, beauty and order, a child is able to develop independence thanks to psychological directives.

– Development planes – According to Montessori, we have four distinct planes of human development – birth to six, six to 12, 12 to 18 and 18 to 24. And, from the absorbent mind, sensitive periods and normalization that we see in the first to embracing science and culture in the final it is a great foundation for life.

– Peace and education – A famous quote from Montessori summed up her determination to find the theory behind education – “preventing conflicts is the work of politics; establishing peace is the work of education”. She created a practice to her theory that she completely believed had a role to play across the world, and this was shown through her six Nobel Peace Prize nominations.

With this we see how this theory of education has been set up. Since it was first started, Montessori has been received very well and continues to go strong. Always be sure that the programme in question sticks to the theories and ideals that she discovered all those years ago.

5 Solid Strategies For Low Cost Car Insurance Quotes Online

Looking for the low cost car insurance quote online but did you know that you can take your savings even further?

Here are 5 solid strategies for for finding cheap online auto insurance quotes:

These strategies can cut your premiums dramatically for the long term and free up a lot more cash. Save hundreds of dollars every year by following them.

1st Strategy for Low Cost Car Insurance

Vehicle Equipment:

Air Bags: Having air bags (may be standard on many automobiles already).

Anti-lock Brakes: Once a rarity these may already be factory installed on your vehicle

Anti-theft System: If you are purchasing a car look for one with a built-in anti-theft system. It will save you money month in and month out.

2nd Strategy for Low Cost Auto Insurance

Driving Record History:

No Accidents for 5 years+: This can seriously transform your savings because you demonstrate that you are a low risk driver.

Seat Belts: Automobile Insurance companies want you to be safe because it will cost them less which costs you less in your car insurance.

Note: Having a pristine driving record can set you up for receiving accident forgiveness from some auto insurance companies too!

3rd Strategy for Low Cost Car Auto Insurance Quote

Driver’s Education: A quick drivers education class can earn you a discount right away.

Defensive Driving Discount: Depending on the state you reside in you may be able to take a course on defensive driving and receive a discount just for taking that course.

Full Time Student Good Student Discount: Studies have shown that students that do well in school also are better drivers and it will reflect in your auto insurance premiums. They look for a “B” Average in the young drivers grades.

4th Strategy for Low Cost Quotes Auto Insurance

Organization Affiliation: If you belong to specific organizations in the fields of:

Accounting, School Alumni, Attorney, Credit Unions, Education / Teaching, Engineering, Federal, Financial, Medical, Military, Professional Development, Scientific, Student Organizations, Technical, etc.

You may receive a discount depending on your car insurance company.

5th Strategy for Low Cost Quotes Car Insurance

Compare Car Insurance Rates: When you compare auto insurance rates from several reputable auto insurers you FORCE them to compete for your business.

These automobile insurers know that if they do not provide their most inexpensive online car insurance quotes to you they lose that opportunity for your business.

This is the single most important strategy for finding lowcost car insurance.

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Compare auto insurance quotes now and you will be able to implement each one of the above car insurance quote online strategies in the application.

Remember, a little extra effort can save you literally hundreds (These savings add up) on your car auto insurance quote premiums not just one time but year in and year out.

Evan Povich is a representative of BaseQuotes Insurance Comparisons Site. BaseQuotes offers inexpensive insurance quotes from over 100 of the top companies offering life insurance quotes, car insurance quotes, health insurance, homeowners insurance and Long term care insurance (LTC Quotes).

We strive to provide cheap insurance quotes online. In order to save money on your insurance it is imperative that consumers compare insurance price quotes for whatever insurance they are planning to purchase. Individual car ins agents have a vested interest in providing you with only one option: an auto ins policy with their company. As an auto insurance comparison site our job is to provide you with multiple competitive and cheap auto ins quotes allowing you to compare and decide for yourself which one is the best option. This will save you not only an immense amount of time but a serious amount of money.

Education or Experience – What’s More Important?

If you were a recruiter given a choice between two candidates-one with a few years of industry experience and the other with excellent qualifications but no “real world” training-who would you choose?

There’s no easy answer to this question, as there is no clear winner in the age-old debate on the importance of education vs. the value of experience. With one random search on the Internet, you’ll find tons of people sitting on both sides of the fence. Pages and pages have been dedicated to the debate, but it seems far from being settled.

Those who think education has little bearing on success never tire of throwing out the names of famous university dropouts like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs to win their argument, while the proponents of a college education quote statistic after statistic to prove its impact on a person’s employability and earnings.

Education or Experience

So what’s more important-education or experience? The truth is that both have a place in a person’s career trajectory.

While someone with experience but no formal degree may be favored for certain jobs, he or she may find himself or herself reaching a saturation point in his or her career earlier and may struggle to advance professionally because the person is not considered adequately qualified. On the other hand, a college grad with the best education and book smarts may be completely at sea when it comes to dealing with real-world work situations if the graduate has no prior industry experience.

The truth of the matter is that it’s not so much about education vs. experience, but education and experience. They’re not mutually exclusive, but actually go hand-in-hand in charting out a person’s career growth.

The corporate landscape is getting more and more competitive with each passing day. Employers neither have the money nor the willingness to make huge investments in developing raw talent. They are more interested in acquiring talented candidates with demonstrated ability, and they look for a complete package at the time of hiring. That’s why someone who has solid educational credentials as well as real-world experience stands a better chance of making the cut.

Why is Education Important?

Companies are not just hiring with the aim to fill the current position, but have an eye on the future. If you have not already demonstrated that you have the potential to grow with a job, they may very well pass you up for another candidate who has shown that promise.

Having completed undergraduate degree program can demonstrate to them certain qualities in you. A college grad, for an employer, is often a person who has a proven academic record, has mastered complex subject matter, has the ability to think analytically and logically, and has been exposed to an intellectually stimulating environment.

In short, they see a person who has demonstrated that he or she can rise up the ranks and can be trusted with more responsible roles, rather than someone who can only perform tasks the person’s familiar with.

Make no mistake-just having a resume embellished with fancy undergraduate or graduate degree programs will not do the trick. Your employers expect you to bring to the table everything you have learned as part of your education and apply your skills and knowledge to solving real-world work problems.

How Do I Gain Experience?

As already mentioned, employers are looking for a perfect blend of experience and education in their employees. But the process of gaining experience has to start somewhere.

As a fresh graduate playing the field, you can wait for someone to give you that first break-or you can work toward getting your hands dirty with some real-world experience before you ever finish your formal education.

There are several ways of doing it: internships, co-operative work placements, industrial trainings, apprenticeships, freelancing, and more. Some academic programs have a mandatory practical training requirement, while others may need you to take the initiative.

With the right combination of a successful academic career and relevant experience in your field, you could be giving yourself a leg up against the competition.

The Best Quotes From America’s Top Motivational Speaker Jim Rohn

Jim Rohn was one of the most in-demand motivational speakers. Before his death in December 5, 2009, he was known for serving as a good influence to others when it comes to personal development. After all, his rags to riches story from a farmer to a stock clerk to a successful entrepreneur is a blueprint that a lot of people would like to follow. He’s also a beloved author, and his book, “Five Major Pieces to the Life Puzzle”, continues to teach people how to succeed by having the right philosophy, attitude, action, results and lifestyle.

A Quotable Man

One of the main reasons why he was one of America’s top motivational speakers is because of his inspirational quotes. His quotes are placed on sticky notes that are displayed on refrigerators and computer monitors all over the world. He has a lot of inspiring quotes that choosing the best quotes is a huge challenge. However, compiled below are some of the best quotes that you can get inspiration and guidance from.

Best Quotes of Jim Rohn

“Formal education will make you a living; self-education will make you a fortune.”

Simply put, education doesn’t start and end in the classroom. You need to educate yourself outside the four walls of the classroom. Your self-education will help you unleash your inner creativity and intelligence that can lead to ideas that can make you a fortune.

“Success is nothing more than a few simple disciplines, practiced every day.”

This is a very good quote because Jim Rohn basically simplified success. This means that just about anyone, with the right disciplines, can experience success.

“Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going.”

This is one of his most popular quotes. According to him, you just need to find the right motivation in order to get started. Once you’ve started, habit will kick in and this is how you can keep going.

“Miss a meal if you have to, but don’t miss a book.”

This is consistent with his advice to continue with self-education. Continue feeding your mind and a good book is more important than a good meal. On a related note, one of his best quotes says, “Nourish the mind like you would your body. The mind cannot survive on junk food.” Again, he put importance on nourishing the mind.

“At the end of each day, you should play back the tapes of your performance. The results should either applaud you or prod you.”

Self-appraisal is also important. You should take a look at what happened during the day. Is your day a performance worthy of applause or boos?

“We must learn to help those who deserve it, not just those who need it. Life responds to deserve, not need.”

This quote will really make you think as we’re programmed to help those who need help. According to him, we should learn how to determine who deserves the help that we can give.

Jim Rohn has a lot of other amazing quotes. With these best quotes, you can already see why he’s well-loved and why he’s an inspiration to Americans and people from all over the world.

Higher Technical Education: Distinctiveness of Humanities, Indian English, and ESP

I am grateful to the organizing committee for thinking about me and inviting me to deliver a guest lecture on distinctiveness of Humanities and social sciences in higher technical education. I feel rather uneasy and highly septic, as I stand here with no pretensions of a high-brow professor or specialist whose discourse goes overhead. I speak to you as a practicing teacher of English language skills, especially for science and technology, and Indian English writing, especially poetry, with interest in what concerns us in the Humanities division, which, unfortunately, enjoys little academic respect in the over-all scheme of things in almost every technical institution.

Maybe, a conference like this augurs well for friends in the department of Humanities & Social Sciences, as they seek to explore interdisciplinarity, which indeed expands the scope of teaching and research. But I must provide a perspective to my several remarks that ensue from my reflections on the quality of intellectual activity in most technical institutions vis-a-vis the negligible support for scholarship in the Humanities, perhaps with the belief that the humanities are not ‘real subjects’ or that these have no bearing on learning of technical subjects, or these bring no demonstrable economic benefit.

The discipline has declined more perceptibly with, to quote Nannerl O. Keohane, “the creation of increasingly specialized disciplines and rewards for faculty members for advancing knowledge in those areas.” We have a marginalized status in technical institutions even if we may have been playing a crucial role as teachers of languages and letters. I don’t want to dwell on them here. But, we should be aware of the ground reality.

Yes, study in humanities is not always a matter of communicating ‘new findings’ or proposing a ‘new theory’. It is rather ‘cultivating understanding’ or thinking critically about some profound questions of human life; it is often the expression of the deepened understanding, which some individual has acquired, through reading, discussion and reflection, on a topic which has been ‘known’ for a long time. To me, practices in arts and humanities elevate consciousness, refine susceptibilities in various directions, create deeper awareness, and enable us to respond critically and independently to the ‘brave new world’ we live in. Arts and humanities alone can help us to explore what it means to be human, and sustain “the heart and soul of our civilization.” Perhaps, it’s the usefulness of humanities which is acknowledged by inviting me to speak to a distinguished audience like this.

I intend to divide my brief into two parts: I would reflect on technical institutions as schools of higher learning; and then, I would say something about the business of English language teaching, which is my prime professional concern. Yet, much will remain unsaid, for I am aware of the controversies I may be raising.

I strongly feel most university level technical institutions in India, like the general ones, have failed in promoting or upholding healthy intellectual attitudes and values, and academic culture and tradition, expected of a university, just as, it’s painful for me to observe, the culture has been virtually dismal in the case of studies in arts and humanities in the last four decades. The dullness and sameness has marginalized both creative and critical performance, or the standards handed down to us have become obsolete, or we have fallen into an abyss of unbecoming elitism, or we have become used to a cornucopia of pleasures formerly denied us: I won’t comment. But an opportunity, such as this, is necessarily not to offer any authoritative judgments but to reflect on, or to provide insights into, issues that concern intellectuals at the top of university teaching hierarchy. Should I say ‘non-university’? for I fear most of the faculty do not want to move beyond the parochial confines of narrow exclusivity. It’s the age of specialization they say, and discourage diversity, tolerance and inclusivity: they do not strive for intellectual mobility and change of attitude; we, as seniors, too, have not tried to reach out, or explore!

As a university, we are not oriented to the transformation of our social order, nor are we obligated to act as a moral deterrent in inhibiting the growth of selfish motivation. We think of education in terms of laboratory or industrial practices in mineral and mining sectors, energy, electronics, engineering, computer application, environment, management, law, health sciences, life sciences, and all that, but hardly care for ‘producing’ fully competent and spiritually mature human beings. We do not pay attention to the growth of individual creativity and to an intuitive understanding of individual purpose. We do not bother to educate with, to quote Rabindranath Tagore, the “knowledge of spiritual meaning of existence” which is also the ethical and moral meaning. We have been, unfortunately, bogged down in schemes that inculcate a habit of the mind which indulges in seeking only better opportunities to survive, or higher pay packages.

I’m afraid for too long we have practiced the “how to” of life and neglected the “why”. I believe it is comparatively easy to learn how to accomplish certain material tasks, but much more difficult to learn “what for”. If our educational system has failed over the years, it is because we have never come into a working knowledge of our humanity. We have gained incredible amount of technical knowledge, perhaps more than enough to resolve many problems with which mankind is presently faced, but we have never tried to reflect on how to apply it constructively and successfully for the good of all, with a sense of human dignity.

Some of us rightly worry about the general lack of mutual respect for the rights and feelings of others, the tendency to be suspicious of the unknown, the tendency to take liberty with the sanctity of the individual person, and complain about the general lack of character and integrity, despite higher education. I see our failure in communicating with the spiritual insight which is marked by a balance between individual desires and social demands; I see our failure in creating the awareness of the world of values and principle of the spiritual oneness underlying the great variety found in the world. I see our failure in the humanity being torn apart by intolerance and fundamentalism, the suicidal urge for self-destruction. I see our failure in the rising ethnic, linguistic and religious tensions that now belie the scientific, technological and enlightened euphoria of the sixties.

We seem to have lost a sense of obligation toward creating a good, tolerant, forward-looking society. Thanks to the role of money in democratic processes and institutionalization of corruption at all levels, people have lost faith in politicians, bureaucrats and government. The invasion of governance by the criminal-politician-bureaucrat nexus has done the country greatest harm than the shift of power following the wave of globalization, multinational capitalism, corporate economy, politics of war on terror, environmental concerns, human rights and all that. There is a reshaping of self, values and norms with dominance of the Western discourse in critical reasoning and reflection through perils and delights of growth and change; through survival skills vis-à-vis emigration, sex, parenthood, and age; through re-visiting past and present with vested awareness; through political orthodoxy in the name of democracy, religious fanaticism, casteist dominance, and repression of the liberals and the simple; and through the new processes of fossilization of the pre-colonial/colonial/post-colonial that renders many of us in the profession irrelevant. I wonder if we are not terribly dislocated in our small world.

Let me not digress any further. Ladies and Gentlemen, every university is a school of higher education, but how high is high? If we are only interested in technical education for the sake of developing professional ability or skill in some area of life, then we are talking about a vocational school or polytechnic, and not a true university. Unfortunately, most universities (and technical institutions) have been vying with each other to become professional schools, not committed to the teaching of better morality, higher philosophy, universal order or universal culture. They are not producing morally and ethically conscious good citizens. I am afraid all one can expect from the present priorities in the so called higher education is survival, pursuit of money, and power.

When science is transformed into technology, it becomes a form of power. And, as history would testify, power is the power for good and for evil. The technological culture we live in pervades and shapes our lives. The computer and internet culture, electronic gadgets, microwave, fridge, mobile phones, antibiotics, contraceptives and several such devices have been more than new means. Our sense of vulnerability has been changing fast. The new consumerist culture has taken away what was earlier meaningful and rich experiences of life.

We in the Humanities & Social sciences department need to debate the multifaceted reality that modern technology offers-not only its devices and infrastructure which are its material manifestation but also skills and organization, attitudes and culture, perhaps constructively and contextually. Thinking through technology should make possible for us to develop and contribute to humanities philosophy of science and engineering just as different visions may be possible to discuss through social philosophy of technology. Researchers in the West have already been talking about technology as liberator, technology as threat, and technology as instrument of power. Our lives and ideas have thus changed and will continue to change. In fact, every field has been changing rapidly these days. The discipline (HSS) needs to incorporate their study, especially as media such as internet and social networking have already modified and redefined human relationship and identities everywhere and at all levels.

Then, there is the emergence of what has been called ‘knowledge society’. The growth or creation of knowledge society that we have been talking about since the beginning of this century presupposes our capacity for idea generation. But if knowledge is not made freely available to all who seek it, how can one promote humanity or make it power for a liberal democratic society. Moreover, as scientific and technical knowledge spreads or becomes more powerful, it would become more problematic for the scientific community to assume moral responsibility for the use and abuse of scientific knowledge. To mitigate this challenge, one needs an education not so much in science but in humanities. When scientists say they want to live up to their social responsibilities, what they seem to mean is that they want more power than they have; it means they want to run things, to take charge. They should not end up ‘doing politics’ in the name of improving the world or society. Let them be interested in themselves, in facing the task of their own self-improvement, and learning how to think about their own responsibilities in a more serious and reflective way, their own moral education.

As a faculty in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences in one of the leading technical universities in the country, what I think the scientific and engineering community has to face up to is its own self-education, its own social education. Our budding engineers and scientists have to explore answers to such basic questions as: what is a good society? How do we go about achieving it? How do we-what do we-learn from history? What do we learn from political philosophers of the past? Or, why scientists think and speak the way they do? They cannot neglect this kind of educational enquiry in technical education because there is more and more to know as the fields proliferate. Which means, the department of Humanities and Social Sciences should equip them with the basics that helps them demonstrate understanding in and across the major disciplines: scientific understanding, technical understanding, mathematical understanding, historical understanding, artistic/humanistic understanding, cross-cultural understanding, and understanding of moral and political philosophy, and philosophy of science etc. There is need for providing new unfamiliar concepts and examples to promote such understanding which will later enable them to take enormous decisions vis-à-vis the complexity of the world science and technology has brought about.

With the present consciousness, accept it or not, we, in educational establishments, have perpetuated living with a world in upheaval, and in some cases, have even shown a preference for it. But, with a higher order of awareness that approaches intuitive levels of understanding (something arts, culture and humanistic studies essentially seek to develop), we should be better able to look at an issue from many different dimensions, and rationalize how we ought to live in the future “as complete citizens who can think for themselves, criticize traditions, and understand the significance of another person’s sufferings and achievements,” to quote Martha Nusbaum from her book Not for Profit.

A technical university needs to provide for education which also elevates the consciousness and extends the power of the soul; that is, we need to shift a part of the current educational priorities from the intellect to the heart, and from scientific and technical thinking to soul cognition. The end and aim of a university, be it technical or general, is the perfection of man, striving to evolve the consciousness in tune with the universe.

The education we ‘sell’ needs to be re-tuned towards creativity, innovation, and respect for fundamental freedom; our policies and curiculums should help in strengthening the culture and values of a global society which is characterized by multiculturalism, intercultural interactions, mutual respect, tolerance, dignity and respect for values, and consciousness of ourselves as one human race, human rights and global responsibility for change in attitudes. We must, at every level, strive for a balance between the traditional attitudes and the need for a modern multi-cultural society.

I believe most of the new technical institutions can maintain their distinctiveness by seriously opening to the diversity of our times, by sharing freely with students representing the diversity of our larger society, culture, and future needs. The enclave approach which seeks to shut out or at least seriously limit the diverse socio-cultural needs and understanding may not help any more to maintain distinctiveness of the institution.

I also worry about the system’s unwillingness to nurture the ethos and sensibility that sustains a university spirit even as, according to the current govt. policies, an institution of higher learning is expected to run as a business enterprise which in days to come, will modify, perhaps irreversibly, our attitudes to teaching and research, our notions of knowledge, our administrative practices, and our relationship with the state and society. We need to make a move from the concerns of the immediate present to the future and visualize a different typology of cultural, linguistic and educational problems against the backdrop of a very fluctuating socio-political climate and pressures of all types.

As part of the language and literature teaching fraternity for over 38 years and working in a specialized university, I know how significant Humanities teaching is to hone the mind, critical thinking and communication skills. I am tempted to quote Erwin Griswold (of the Harvard Law School): “You go to a great school not so much for knowledge as for arts or habits; for the art of expression, for the art of entering quickly into another person’s thoughts, for the art of assuming at a moment’s notice a new intellectual position, for the habit of submitting to censure and refutation, for the art of indicating assent or dissent in graduated terms, for the habit of regarding minute points of accuracy, for the art of working out what is possible in a given time; for taste, for discrimination, for mental courage, and mental soberness.”

Now, let me talk about the business of English Language Teaching. I say ‘business’ because it has developed into a multi-million dollars commercial enterprise outside the native bases. We too, have an opportunity to capitalize on it in our own way, if we can. We can reach out to people in over 70 countries where English is one of the main languages.

The global diffusion of the language has now taken an interesting turn: the ratio between the native speakers of English (in countries like the U.K., the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and the non-native speakers (in countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Philippines etc where English is used along with the mother tongue) is almost 40: 60, and it has expanded fast to other countries (like China, Japan, Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Zimbabwe, Taiwan, the Gulf Countries, and the countries of the erstwhile Eastern Bloc). It is virtually a native language in South Africa, Jamaica and West Indies. Its acculturation, its international functional range, and the diverse forms of literary creativity it is accommodating are historically unprecedented.

As Braj B. Kachru notes, the situation today is such that the native speakers have an insignificant role in the global spread and teaching of English; they seem to have lost the exclusive prerogative to control its norms of use or standardization; in fact, if current statistics are any indication, they have become a minority.

This sociolinguistic fact and its implications have not yet been fully recognized by most linguists, ELT practitioners, ESPists, administrators, language policy planners, and college and university teachers in India. What we need now are new paradigms and perspectives for linguistic and pedagogical research and for understanding the linguistic creativity, including the scientific and technical writing, in multilingual situations across cultures.

You will appreciate the English we all speak is not like the English the native speakers of the language speak. We don’t need to. The yardsticks of the British or American native speakers, or their standards as reflected in GRE, TOEFL or IELTS etc, or their kind of tongue twisting, are simply damaging to the interests of non-native speakers. We have to develop our own standards, instead of teaching to sound like Londoners or North Americans. Pronunciation must be comprehensible and not detract from the understanding of a message. But for this nobody needs to speak the so called standardized English that makes inter- and intranational communication difficult. David Crystal too appreciates this reality and favours local taste of English in India and elsewhere.

Our Indianness is clearly reflected in the pronunciation of certain vowels and consonant, in the stressing of words, in the rhythm and pauses, in the vocabulary and lexical acculturation, discourse patterning, code mixing, usages, grammatical deviations etc. The prolonged linguistic and cultural contact of English in various states of the Indian union has given it a unique character which deserves serious academic exploration. It has acquired a considerable functional range and depth, and it is preposterous to expect that the language would not be ‘shaped’ or ‘moulded’ according to the local needs or remain unaffected by the influences of local languages and literatures, cultures and users. It is, in fact, the result of such deep-rooted local functions, that we have now an institutionalized model of English for intranational uses. The way India’s multilingualism and ethnic pluralism have added to the complexity of Indian English, apart from ‘mixing’ words, phrases, clauses and idioms from the Indian Language into English, and in ‘switching’ from one language to another, perhaps to express the speaker’s ‘identity’ or linguistic ‘belonging’, the role of ‘native speaker’– the British or American– as become peripheral, as Kachru rightly asserts, unless he or she understands the local cultures and cultural presuppositions.

I am not very much concerned with the literary perspective of Indian English here, even if I have been actively associated with Indian English literary practices for over thirty five years. I am professionally interested in the language use and usage of Indian writers, and scholars and researchers of science and technology, the localized educated variety they have developed to communicate indigenous innovations. You can appreciate this if you have noticed development of local registers for agriculture, for the legal system, for entertainment industry, for Environment, and so on. The publications of Indian practitioners of science and technology have certain discourse features which are unique to Indian English, but not examined.

I suspect Indian English is not yet recognized as an important area of research for ‘English for specific purposes’ (ESP) that we teach. [It is also, however, very sad that though ESP as an approach is now firmly established, it still has fewer supporters in India, possibly because nobody wants any changes in the conventional teaching-learning practices?] Having been in the forefront of ESP movement in the country for over twenty five years, I am aware of the localized linguistic innovations in the huge output of Indian researchers, some of which has the potential for serving effectively and successfully as pedagogical texts or teaching materials. But it is unfortunate the English teaching academia are slow to recognize the pragmatic contexts–the importance of intranational uses of English and according to local needs – and continue to stick to the external norms of English. It’s more regrettable that the conceptual and applied research on ESP in the West has avoided addressing issues which are vital for understanding the use of English across cultures.

The way ESP has turned international, teachers and researchers in Applied Languages in our country need to explore: what accommodation a native speaker of English may have to make for participation in communication with those who use a local (or non-native) variety of English; what determines communicative performances or pragmatic success of English in its international uses; what insights we have gained by research on intelligibility and comprehensibility concerning international and intranational uses of English; and what attitudinal and linguistic adjustments are desirable for effective teaching of ESP based on a non-native English, like Indian English. These are a few basic questions, not convenient to Western ESP enthusiasts.

I have noticed in the Western ESP in general, and science and technology in particular, a strong bias towards ethno-centricism in approach and neglect of intranational motivation for the uses of English. It is not possible to practice ESP effectively unless we respect, what John Swales call, “local knowledge” and “localized pragmatic needs”. After all, we use the language as a tool and we cannot ignore the localized innovations that have “code-related” and “context-related” dimensions. We ought to view non-native innovations in ESP as positive and consider them as part of the pragmatic needs of the users. It is the attitudinal change that I plead for!

Teaching of ESP in a university in the second language situation like ours is largely a “collaborative sense-making” with the class. When I say this, I am pointing to the interactive nature of formal instruction, which, in terms of actual language use, is essentially Indian in tone, tenor and style. I am also referring to the need for understanding the dichotomy between the rhetoric of EST teaching and the practice enacted in the classroom from the viewpoint of adult learners, and language skills development and competence in the Indian social setting. We need to evolve a dynamic model of ‘communicative teaching’ of ESP which seeks to develop (i)linguistic competence (Accuracy), (ii)pragmatic competence (Fluency), and (iii) sociolinguistic competence (Appropriacy), without ignoring interrelated aspects of local practice, research and theory and at the same time emphasizes language awareness, which is a significant concept in ELT, in that it covers implicit, explicit, and interactive knowledge about language and provides for a critical awareness of language and literature practices that are shaped by, and shape, sociocultural relationships, professional relationship, and relationship of power. The approach can also facilitate cross-cultural comparisons and contrasts, and promote genre-based studies (i.e. how language works to mean, how different strategies can be used, how meaning is constructed), basic to ESP, in that it truly develops individual’s performance competence.

Friends, I have hopped from one point to another, perhaps jumbled up, in my zeal to draw your attention to several aspects of English, Indian English and ESP that have wider and deeper implications. They touch attitudinal chords of English language users, teachers and administrators too. Teaching of English, both language and literature, today is not only academically challenging but also opens new refreshing avenues for applied research. This is because of the spread and changing status of English, which has grown from a native, second, and foreign language to become an international language of commerce science and technology, spoken among more non-natives than natives in the process of their professional pursuits or everyday lives. I have also placed certain facts of science and technology education in the context of Humanities before you, raised issues, expressed my view, and now it is for the profession to accept, reject or explore their implications. Thank you.

How to Save Time and Money When Buying Computer Hardware and Services for Educational Institutions

From elementary school to universities, computers are becoming the new “teacher’s assistant” and there is no sign of this trend slowing down. Unfortunately, the need for high technology equipment like HP desktops, HP workstations and HP storage devices is growing faster than the budgets needed to support this explosive growth. That’s why it is so important for educational institutions to partner with total technology solution providers who have access to special educational pricing and who have the capabilities and the knowledge needed to help determine computer hardware specifications, prepare quotes and handle the procurement, installation and configuration process.

Navigating the computer hardware purchasing maze can not only be time-consuming, it can be expensive as well. Educational computer hardware pricing varies among suppliers and can even vary within the same supplier depending upon the quantity being purchased and how the HP quote is prepared.

It makes sense that an educational institution placing an order for 50 HP laptops, for example, is going to receive better per-unit pricing than a school that is only ordering one. But that’s not always the case. Many schools are discovering that they can get preferred pricing even if they are only ordering a handful of HP printers IF they place their HP quotes through the right IT service provider.

If your computer hardware requirements include HP desktops, HP notebooks, HP storage devices, HP workstations, or any other HP hardware for educational institutions, here are some time and money-saving tips you can’t afford to ignore:

1. Always partner with HP hardware solutions providers that have experience in the educational institutions channel. These providers can contact HP on your behalf to negotiate the best pricing and delivery times.

2. Only work with an HP hardware solutions provider who will also install and configure your HP computer products and who provide personalized account management. Service that stops after the sale is not really a service at all.

3. Let your educational institution HP computer partner assist you in preparing your HP computer hardware specifications and submitting your HP quotes. This way you’ll have the best chance of specifying the right HP computer products that will provide maximum performance at the lowest possible price.

4. Try to bundle your HP hardware purchases together with other schools in your district, or with your local government or state government agencies, whenever possible. This can help to leverage your buying power even further and can often move your school into the level of “preferred customer” which may result in even better pricing and a higher service-level commitment from your HP solutions provider.

Educational institutions have an obligation to provide their staff and student body with the best available technology and the lowest possible price. Choose the right technology partner and you’ll find that you can buy quality HP laptops, HP servers, HP printers and other HP computer hardware at a fair price and still get all the after-sale support you’ll ever need.

Quotes In Our Day To Day Life

Quotes can be wise, full of inspiration or funny things which have been said by people. It requires patience to read quotes which is surpringly missing in most of the people. Quotes are the ones which makes a significant impact on our personalities.

Theodore Roosevelt Quotes

Theodore Roosevelt was a person with a versatile personality. He was an American politician, a soldier, an author and a historian. He served as the President of the United States. Some of the famous Theodore Roosevelt quotes are:

• “No one cares how much you know until they know how much you care.” This Theodore Roosevelt quote gives us very important messages in our life that people are not at all bothered about your knowledge or how much do you know unless they come to know about your caring nature.

• “Work hard to get good result or you wasted your time.” This famous quote tells us that we should rather work hard and should be ready to exhaust ourselves instead of not trying anything which could eventually lead in the total failure. If we do not believe in working hard we might come across a stage where we would not be in a position to do anything.

• “Courage is not having the strength to go on; it is going on when you don’t have the strength.” This quote simple tells us the real courage in life is when we happen to move ahead in our lives without any strength. To move ahead in life without any courage is the real strength of our life.

Quote for women

• “Ladies Imagination make you fall in love and finally put desire to get married in a moment.” This famous quote for women from Jane Austen tells us about the nature of a woman which moves at a very fast and constant rate. The nature of a woman follows a series of changes and one thing leads to another.

• “Well-behaved woman seldom makes history.” This famous quote for women from Laurel Thatcher is a quote for woman which tells us quite a lot about the nature of women and says that most of the famous women in history were not well behaved.

• “You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation.” This famous quote from Brigham Young tells us about the capability of a woman. If a woman is educated she can further educate people which would help in making a stronger and reformed society.

Quotes for greatness

The quotes for greatness actually motivate you in life which is very important.

• “There are no great men, only great challenges that ordinary men are forced by circumstances to meet.” This famous quote for greatness tells us that there is nothing called great men instead it is something great when normal people are made to do certain things by the influence of nature.

• “Man is only truly great when he acts from his passions.” This quote tells that we only show our best when we work in life by putting in our heart and soul.